By Andrew G. Reiter
This publication provides post-peace contract violence as a significant, but predictable and doable, political phenomenon. Negotiating an finish to a civil battle is very tricky, and plenty of signed peace agreements consequently get to the bottom of, ushering in renewed clash. In reaction, very important foreign actors became more and more fascinated by clash mediation, peacekeeping, and post-conflict reconstruction world wide. Policymakers and students alike have pointed out spoilers—violent actors who usually get up and try and problem or derail the peace process—as one of many maximum threats to peace. utilizing a mixed-method strategy combining quantitative and qualitative analyses of a newly created, international dataset of spoiling, Reiter demonstrates that this kind of violence happens in predictable conditions and simply represents a probability to peace less than particular stipulations. The ebook additionally exhibits that spoiling frequently serves to deliver contract flaws and implementation mess ups to mild and in flip forces actors to recommit to an accord, thereby strengthening peace within the long-term.
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Additional resources for Fighting Over Peace : Spoilers, Peace Agreements, and the Strategic Use of Violence
2001. Prenegotiation and Circum-Negotiation: Arenas of the Multilevel Peace Process. In Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, eds. Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall, 483–496. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press. Shaw, Mark, and Walter Kemp. 2012. Spotting the Spoilers: A Guide to Analyzing Organized Crime in Fragile States. New York, NY: International Peace Institute. pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2016. Shikaki, Khalil. 1998. The Peace Process and Political Violence.
It makes no broader claims about the actors or their larger views on peace in general. They may in fact believe that no peace agreement will ever be justified, but they also may simply oppose this particular agreement. The main criterion here is that the group claims itself that it is fundamentally opposed to some key aspect(s) of the agreement at hand or the actors involved in it—no modified version of the agreement will prove acceptable. Hamas and other extremist groups, for example, are well known for their opposition to attempts to secure peace in the Israel–Palestine conflict, and have resorted to termination spoiling following a number of peace agreements (Kydd and Walter 2002).
If it does not, the agreement may collapse. The case of Colombia represents one of the most notable examples of paramilitary spoiling. In the late 1980s, various Colombian guerrilla groups began negotiating peace agreements with the government to coincide with a new constitution. A preliminary agreement was signed with the main rebel group, the FARC, during this period, which then formed the Patriotic Union (UP) party and attempted to enter mainstream politics. In the 1990 elections, however, the presidential candidate for the UP, Bernardo Jaramillo Ossa, was assassinated by right-wing paramilitaries opposed to any peace agreement with the guerrillas, along with hundreds of other candidates for political office.