By Laura A Janda
This grammatical cartoon of Czech is meant to function a descriptive instruction manual unencumbered through the perspective of anyone theoretical framework. The creation will supply a survey of the site and variety of audio system, in addition to the relation of Czech to different languages, and the family of literary Czech to its variations (dialectology and diglossia). The bankruptcy on phonology will concentrate on vowel volume, assimilations, and the prosodic habit of clitics. The bankruptcy on morphology will aspect the grammatical different types expressed within the language and the technique of their expression, with designated emphasis on morphophonemic alternations. this can be to be by way of a bankruptcy on syntax, to be able to tackle the meanings and makes use of of circumstances and prepositions, numeral structures, clause constitution, a number of negation, use of passive and causative buildings, coordination and subordination of clauses, and discourse phenomena. A separate bankruptcy can be dedicated to the difficulty of diglossia in Czech, outlining the phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical variations that exist among the 2 "standard" codes of the language, literary Czech and spoken Czech. The e-book will shut with short texts to function examples of the 2 codes, every one with an interlinear transcription and translation into English.
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Additional info for Czech (Languages of the world)
The neuter singular v£echno/v£e (and its case forms) is used impersonally to mean ÔeverythingÕ; the 30 masculine animate plural v£ichni (and its case forms) has a similar force, invoking ÔeverybodyÕ. The following forms in the paradigm have alternates (used more frequently in speech) in -cek, -ck-: v£echen > v£ecek, v£echna > v£ecka, v£echno > v£ecko, v£echnu > v£ecku, v£echny > v£ecky, v£ichni > v£icci. 4 Numeral morphology The following table provides a representative sample of cardinal and ordinal numerals.
Cht’t; chci, chce£, chce, chceme, chcete, cht«j’; cht«l; cht«n, cht«jÊÔwantÕ has a stem alternation of chc- vs. chtÕ-. j’t; jdu, jde£, jdeme, jdete, jdou; £el; -jit’; jdiÊÔwalkÕ has a non-past stem of jd- and a suppletive past stem: m sg £el, f sg & n pl £la, n sg £lo, etc. jet; jedu, jede£, jede, jedeme, jedete, jedou; jel; -jet’; jedÕ ÔrideÕ is a d/t subtype which truncates the stem in infinitive and past forms. ª’st; ªtu, ªte£, ªte, ªteme, ªtete, ªtou; ªetl; ªten; ªti ÔreadÕ is a d/t subtype with a mobile vowel.
Except for the biaspectual verbs (such as jmenovat ÔnameÕ, organizovat ÔorganizeÕ), all verb forms unambiguously express aspect, and this has a direct influence on tense. Perfective verbs always denote some change of state. Very often, they designate an accomplishment which has been carried out. The process of carrying out this accomplishment is expressed by an imperfective verb (almost always with the same stem) which then forms an aspectual pair with 34 its corresponding perfective. But imperfective verbs also frequently designate an unchanging or static state, or an activity (which may consist of repeated acts) which does not move toward an implicit goal.