AmIware: Hardware Technology Drivers of Ambient Intelligence by Satyen Mukherjee, Emile Aarts, Raf Roovers, Frans

By Satyen Mukherjee, Emile Aarts, Raf Roovers, Frans Widdershoven, Martin Ouwerkerk

Ambient Intelligence is likely one of the new paradigms within the improvement of data and conversation know-how, which has attracted a lot consciousness during the last years. the purpose is the to combine expertise into humans atmosphere in one of these means that it improves their day-by-day lives when it comes to future health, creativity, and productiveness. Ambient Intelligence is a multidisciplinary proposal, which seriously builds on a couple of primary breakthroughs which have been accomplished within the improvement of recent strategies during the last years. New insights in nano and micro electronics, packaging and interconnection know-how, large-area electronics, strength scavenging units, instant sensors, low energy electronics and computing structures allow the belief of the heaven of ambient intelligence by means of overcoming the hell of physics. in line with contributions from prime technical specialists, this ebook provides a few key themes on novel advancements, therefore offering the reader an outstanding perception into the actual foundation of ambient intelligence. It additionally shows key study demanding situations that needs to be addressed sooner or later.

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1–4b) to verify the DRV model and explore the potential of leakage suppression using this method. 1–4a, the SRAM supply rails are connected to the standard and standby VDD through power switches. The test chip contains a 4 KB SRAM module and a switched-capacitor converter that generates the calculated DRV with 85% conversion efficiency [6]. The DRV is measured by monitoring the data retention capability of an SRAM cell with different values of standby VDD . The actual DRV for each of the 32K SRAM cells is measured by monitoring the data retention with different values of standby VDD .

A) Measured DRV distribution of a 4 kB SRAM chip. (b) Measured SRAM leakage current. of measured DRV is slightly lower than the 78 mV ideal DRV, assuming perfect process matching. The long distribution tail reduces the leakage achievable reduction using this method. 1–5b. The shaded area in this figure indicates the range of measured DRV (60–390 mV). Although the memory states can be preserved at sub400 mV VDD , the robustness of state preservation can be increased by adding an extra guard band of 100 mV to the standby VDD .

94–110 September 1991. , 1993, Some computer science problems in ubiquitous computing, Communications of the ACM, July 1993. (reprinted as Ubiquitous Computing, Nikkei Electronics, pp. ) [4] Hsu, V, J. M. Kahn and K. S. J. Pister, 1998, Wireless Communications for Smart Dust, Electronics Research Laboratory Technical Memorandum Number M98/2, February 1998. [5] Byron R. , 1998, The Media Equation, CSLI Lecture Notes, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. , 2002, Nature, 417, 55. [7] Hayes, R. A.

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