Advanced scanning microscopy for nanotechnology techniques by Weilie Zhou

By Weilie Zhou

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3. M. E. Haine and V. E. Cosslett, The Electron Microscope, Spon, London (1961). 4. A. N. Broers, in: SEM/1975, IIT Research Institute, Chicago (1975). 5. J. Goldstein, D. Newbury, D. Joy, C. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer, and J. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, 3rd edn, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York (2003). 6. C. W. Oatley, The Scanning Electron Microscope, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1972). 7. J. I. Goldstein and H. Yakowitz, Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy, Plenum Press, New York (1975).

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In basic SEMs the WD is typically of the order of 12–20 mm so the ET detector can readily be positioned close to the specimen and with a good viewpoint above it. In more advanced microscopes, the WD is often much smaller in order to enhance image resolution and locating the detector is therefore more difficult. Such SEMs often employ a unipole or “snorkel” lens configuration, which produces a large magnetic field at the specimen surface. This field captures a large fraction of the SE emission and channels it back through the bore of the lens and up the column.

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